APWH – Ch. 13 Political Transformation
NEARPOD / PowerPoint NOTES
RAUSCH – RM220
I. European Empires in the Americas
A. The European Advantage
1. Geography: European Atlantic states were well positioned for involvement in the Americas, windfall of natural resources made colonizing European states economically stronger and started growth lasting until the 20th century.
2. Need: Chinese and Indians had such rich markets in the Indian Ocean that there wasn’t much incentive to go beyond
3. Marginality: Europeans were aware of their marginal position in Eurasian commerce and wanted to change it
4. Rivalry: interstate rivalry drove rulers to compete
5. Merchants: growing merchant class wanted direct access to Asian wealth
6. Wealth and status: colonies were an opportunity for impoverished nobles and commoners
7. Religion: crusading zeal, persecuted minorities looking for more freedom, European states and trading companies mobilized resources well, seafaring technology, iron, gunpowder weapons, and horses gave Europeans an initial advantage over people in the Americas.
8. American collaborators: rivalries within the Americas provided allies for European invaders, indigenous troops allied to the Spanish greatly outnumbered the small number of European soldiers.
B. The Great Dying and the Little Ice Age
1. Demographic collapse: Global significance of the demographic collapse of Native American societies.
2. Pre-Columbian Western Hemisphere had a population of 60 million–80 million
3. European and African diseases: Geographic isolation meant the population had no immunity to Old World diseases. Europeans brought European and African diseases: mortality rate of up to 90 percent among Native American populations, native population nearly vanished in the Caribbean, Central Mexico: population dropped from 10 million–20 million to around 1 million by 1650, similar mortality in North America. Massive death created social crises.
4. Coincided with Little Ice Age: Epidemic spread of disease coincided with global phenomenon of the Little Ice Age: cooling temperatures sparked the General Crisis, erratic rainfall near the equator, social stresses seen in constant warfare in Europe, collapse of the Ming, and civil war in Mughal India, drought in Mexico and torrential rains in the Caribbean.
C. The Columbian Exchange
1. Labor shortage: Massive native mortality and Little Ice Age created a labor shortage in the Americas.
2. Migrant slaves: Migrant Europeans and African slaves created entirely new societies: brought European crops and animals to the Americas.
3. American food crops: American food crops like corn, potatoes, and cassava spread widely in the Eastern Hemisphere: potatoes especially allowed enormous population growth, corn and sweet potatoes were important in China and Africa.
4. American stimulants: American stimulants including tobacco and chocolate also spread to the Eastern Hemisphere
5. Exchange with the Americas: Reshaped the world economy: silver mines of Mexico and Peru, importation of millions of African slaves to the Americas.
6. The Columbian Exchange: Network of communication, migration, trade, transfer of plants and animals (including microbes) is called “the Columbian exchange:” the Atlantic world connected four continents, Europeans got most of the rewards.
II. Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas
A. In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas
1. Spanish conquest: Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires (early sixteenth century): the most wealthy, urbanized, and populous regions of the Western Hemisphere. Within a century, the Spaniards established major cities, universities, and a religious and bureaucratic infrastructure.
2. Commercial agriculture and mining: Economic basis of the colonial society was commercial agriculture and mining (gold and silver).
3. Rise of a distinctive social order: replicated some of the Spanish class hierarchy, accommodated Indians, Africans, and racially mixed people, Spaniards were at the top, increasingly wanted a large measure of self-government from the Spanish Crown, emergence of mestizo (mixed-race) population, gross abuse and exploitation of the Indians, more racial fluidity than in North America.
B. Colonies of Sugar
1. Lowland Brazil and the Caribbean developed a different society: regions had not been home to great civilizations and didn’t have great mineral wealth until the 1690s, but sugar was in high demand in Europe. These colonies produced almost solely for export.
2. Arabs introduced large-scale sugar production to the Mediterranean: Europeans transferred it to Atlantic islands and Americas, Portuguese on Brazilian coast dominated the world sugar market 1570–1670, then British, French, and Dutch in the Caribbean broke the Portuguese monopoly.
3. Sugar transformed Brazil and the Caribbean: production was labor intensive, worked best on large scale, can be called the first modern industry, had always been produced with massive use of slave labor, Indians of the area were almost totally wiped out or fled, planters turned to African slaves—80 percent of all Africans enslaved in the Americas ended up in Brazil and the Caribbean, mostly African men imported to the New World plantations, but some women. Much more of Brazilian and Caribbean society was of African descen.
4. Large mixed-race population provided much of urban skilled workforce and supervisors in sugar industry. Plantation complex based on African slavery spread to southern parts of North America, but in North America, European women came earlier. Result was less racial mixing, less tolerance toward mixed blood; slavery was less harsh, sharply defined racial system evolved.
C. Settler Colonies in North America
1. A different sort of colonial society emerged in British colonies of New England, New York, and Pennsylvania. British got into the game late; got the unpromising lands, but British society was changing more rapidly than Catholic Spain. Many British colonists were trying to escape elements of European society.
2. British settlers were more numerous; by 1750, they outnumbered Spaniards in New World by five to one. By 1776, 90 percent of population of North American colonies was European. Indians were killed off by disease and military policy. Small-scale farming didn’t need slaves.
3. England was mostly Protestant; didn’t proselytize like the Catholics.
4. British colonies developed traditions of local self-government: Britain didn’t impose an elaborate bureaucracy like Spain, British civil war (seventeenth century) distracted government from involvement in the colonies.
5. North America gradually became dominant, more developed than South America
III. The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire
A. Experiencing the Russian Empire
1. Devastating epidemics: Conquest was made possible by modern weapons and organization. Conquest brought devastating epidemics, especially in remote areas of Siberia—locals had no immunity to smallpox and measles.
2. Pressure to convert to Christianity
3. Large-scale settlement of Russians in the new lands, where they outnumbered the native population (e.g., in Siberia). Many natives were Russified
4. Discouragement of pastoralism.
B. Russians and Empire
1. Imperial expansion: With imperial expansion, Russians became a smaller proportion of the overall population.
2. Rich agricultural lands, furs, and minerals helped make Russia a great power by the eighteenth century.
3. Identity problem: Became an Asian power as well as a European one. Long-term Russian identity problem; expansion made Russia a very militarized state, reinforced autocracy.
4. Colonization experience: Different from the Americas: conquest of territories with which Russia had long interacted, conquest took place at the same time as development of the Russian state, the Russian Empire remained intact until 1991.
IV Asian Empires
A. Making China an Empire
1. Qing dynasty (1644–1912) launched enormous imperial expansion to the north and west.
2. Nomads of the north and west were familiar to the Chinese: 80-year-long Chinese conquest (1680–1760), motivated by security fears; reaction to Zunghar state.
3. China evolved into a Central Asian empire. Conquered territory was ruled separately from the rest of China through the Court of Colonial Affairs: considerable use of local elites to govern, officials often imitated Chinese ways, but government did not try to assimilate conquered peoples, little Chinese settlement in the conquered regions.
4. Russian and Chinese rule impoverished Central Asia, turned it into a backward region
B. Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire
1. Mughals united much of India between 1526 and 1707. The Mughal Empire’s most important divide was religious.
2. Emperor Akbar (r. 1556–1605) attempted serious accommodation of the Hindu majority: brought many Hindus into the political-military elite, imposed a policy of toleration, abolished payment of jizya by non-Muslims, created a state cult that stressed loyalty to the emperor, Akbar and his successors encouraged a hybrid Indian-Persian-Turkic culture.
3. Mughal toleration provoked reaction among some Muslims: Emperor Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707) reversed Mughal policy, tried to impose Islamic supremacy, Aurangzeb banned sati (widow burning), music, and dance at court, various vices, destruction of some Hindu temples, reimposition of jizya.
4. Aurangzeb’s policy provoked Hindu reaction
C. Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire
1. The Ottoman Empire was the Islamic world’s most important empire in the early modern period: transformed Turkish social life, Turkish women lost freedoms and status.
2. Long conflict (1534–1639) between Sunni Ottomans and Shia Safavids
3. Cross-cultural: The Ottoman Empire was the site of a significant cross-cultural encounter: in Anatolia, most of the conquered Christians converted to Islam; in the Balkans, Christian subjects mostly remained christian.
4. Christians: In the Balkans, many Christians welcomed Ottoman conquest: Ottoman taxed less and were less oppressive, Christian churches received considerable autonomy, Balkan elites were accepted among the Ottoman elite without conversion.
5. Jewish refugees: Jewish refugees from Spain had more opportunities in the Ottoman Empire.
6. Devshirme: tribute of boys paid by Christian Balkan communities: boys were converted to Islam, trained to serve the state, the devshirme was a means of upward social mobility.
7. The Ottoman state threatened Christendom
8. Some Europeans admired Ottoman rule: philosopher Jean Bodin (sixteenth century) praised Ottoman religious tolerance, European merchants evaded papal bans on selling firearms to the Turks.
BONUS INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter students should:
1. Be able to identify the location and fundamental environmental characteristics of the tropics and their environmental zones, including arid areas, rain forests, river valleys, savannas, plateaus, and mountainous regions, and explain how people made their livings in these various environmental zones.
2. Be able to identify and compare the two Islamic empires of Mali and the Delhi Sultanate.
3. Be able to describe the Indian Ocean trade and to identify the roles played in that trade by the Swahili city-states, Aden, Gujarat and the Malabar Coast, and Malacca.
4. Understand and be able to give concrete examples of the ways in which trade and the spread of Islam changed the societies and cultures of places connected to each other through the trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean trade networks.
I. Tropical Lands and Peoples
A. The Tropical Environment
1. The tropical zone falls between the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south. The
Afro-Asian tropics have a cycle of rainy and dry seasons dictated by the alternating winds known as monsoons.
2. While those parts of the tropics such as coastal West Africa, west-central Africa, and southern India get
abundant rainfall, there is also an arid zone extending across northern Africa (the Sahara) and northwest India,
and another arid zone in southwestern Africa. Altitude also affects climate, with high-altitude mountain ranges
and plateaus having cooler weather and shorter growing seasons than the low-altitude coastal plains and river
valleys. Major rivers bring water from these mountains to other areas.
B. Human Ecosystems
1. Human societies adopted different means of surviving in order to fit into the different ecological zones found in
the tropics. In areas such as central Africa, the upper altitudes of the Himalayas, and some seacoasts, wild food
and fish was so abundant that human societies thrived without having developed agricultural or herding
2. Human communities in the arid areas of the tropics relied on herding and supplemented their diets with grain
and vegetables obtained through trade with settled agriculturalists. The vast majority of the people of the tropics
were farmers who cultivated various crops (rice, wheat, sorghum millet, etc.) depending on the conditions of soil,
climate, and water.
3. In those parts of South and Southeast Asia that had ample water supplies, intensive agriculture transformed the
environment and supported dense populations. In most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of
Southeast Asia, farmers abandoned their fields every few years and cleared new areas by cutting and burning
the natural vegetation.
4. The tropics have an uneven distribution of rainfall during the year. In order to have year-round access to water for
intensive agriculture, tropical farming societies constructed dams, irrigation canals, and reservoirs.
5. In India, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka, governments mobilized vast resources to construct and maintain large
irrigation and water-control projects. Such huge projects increased production, but they were highly vulnerable to
natural disasters and political disruptions. In contrast, the smaller irrigation systems constructed at the village
level were easier to reconstruct and provided greater long-term stability.
C. Mineral Resources
1. Tropical peoples used iron for agricultural implements, weapons, and needles. Copper, particularly important in
Africa, was used to make wire and decorative objects. Africa was also known for its production of gold.
2. Metalworking and food-producing systems mobilized the labor of ordinary people in order to produce surpluses
that in places supported powerful states and profitable commercial systems. Neither of those elite enterprises
would have been possible without the work of ordinary people.
II. New Islamic Empires
A. Mali in the Western Sudan
1. Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa by a gradual process of peaceful conversion. Conversion was facilitated by
2. In 1240 Sundiata (the Muslim leader of the Malinke people) established the kingdom of Mali. Mali’s economy
rested on agriculture and was supplemented by control of regional and trans-Saharan trading routes and by
control of the gold mines of the Niger headwaters.
3. The Mali ruler Mansa Kankan Musa (r. 1312–1337) demonstrated his fabulous wealth during a pilgrimage to
Mecca. When he returned to Mali, Mansa Musa established new mosques and Quranic schools.
4. The kingdom of Mali declined and collapsed in the mid to late fifteenth century because of rebellions from within
and attacks from without. Intellectual life and trade moved to other African states, including the Hausa states and
B. The Delhi Sultanate in India
1. Between 1206 and 1236 the divided states of northwest India were defeated by violent Muslim Turkish
conquerors under the leadership of Sultan Iltutmish, who established the Delhi Sultanate as a Muslim state.
Although the Muslim elite then settled down to rule India relatively peacefully, their Hindu subjects never forgave
the violence of the conquest.
2. Iltutmish passed his throne on to his daughter, Raziya. Raziya was a talented ruler, but she was driven from
office by men unwilling to accept a female monarch. Under Ala-ud-din (r. 1296–1316) and Muhammad ibn
Tughluq (r. 1325–1351), the Delhi Sultanate carried out a policy of aggressive territorial expansion that was
accompanied (in the case of Tughluq) by a policy of religious toleration toward Hindus—a policy that was
reversed by Tughluq’s successor.
3. In general, the Delhi sultans ruled by terror and were a burden on their subjects. In the mid-fourteenth century
internal rivalries and external threats undermined the stability of the Sultanate. The Sultanate was destroyed
when Timur sacked Delhi in 1398.
III. Indian Ocean Trade
A. Monsoon Mariners
1. The Indian Ocean trade increased between 1200 and 1500, stimulated by the prosperity of Latin Europe, Asian,
and African states and, in the fourteenth century, by the collapse of the overland trade routes.
2. In the Red and Arabian Seas, trade was carried on dhows. From India on to Southeast Asia, junks dominated
the trade routes.
3. Junks were technologically advanced vessels, having watertight compartments, up to twelve sails, and carrying
cargoes of up to 1,000 tons. Junks were developed in China, but during the fifteenth century, junks were also
built in Bengal and Southeast Asia and sailed with crews from those places.
4. The Indian Ocean trade was decentralized and cooperative, with various regions supplying particular goods. In
each region a certain port functioned as the major emporium for trade in which goods from smaller ports were
consolidated and shipped onward.
B. Africa: The Swahili Coast and Zimbabwe
1. By 1500, there were thirty or forty separate city-states along the East African coast participating in the Indian
Ocean trade. The people of these coastal cities, the "Swahili" people, all spoke an African language enriched
with Arabic and Persian vocabulary.
2. Swahili cities, including Kilwa, were famous as exporters of gold that was mined in or around the inland
kingdom whose capital was Great Zimbabwe.
3. Great Zimbabwe’s economy rested on agriculture, cattle herding, and trade. The city declined due to an
ecological crisis brought on by deforestation and overgrazing.
C. Arabia: Aden and the Red Sea
1. Aden had enough rainfall to produce wheat for export and a location that made it a central transit point for trade
from the Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Egypt. Aden’s merchants prospered on this trade and built what appeared
to travelers to be a wealthy and impressive city.
2. In general, a common interest in trade allowed the various peoples and religions of the Indian Ocean basin to
live in peace. Violence did sometimes break out, however, as when Christian Ethiopia fought with the Muslims of
the Red Sea coast over control of trade.
D. India: Gujarat and the Malabar Coast
1. The state of Gujarat prospered from the Indian Ocean trade, exporting cotton textiles and indigo in return for
gold and silver. Gujarat was not simply a commercial center; it was also a manufacturing center that produced
textiles, leather goods, carpets, silk, and other commodities. Gujarat’s overseas trade was dominated by
Muslims, but Hindus also benefited.
2. Calicut and other cities of the Malabar Coast exported cotton textiles and spices and served as clearing-houses
for long-distance trade. The cities of the Malabar Coast were unified in a loose confederation whose rulers were
tolerant of other religious and ethnic groups.
E. Southeast Asia: the Rise of Malacca
1. The Strait of Malacca is the principal passage from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea. In the fourteenth
century a gang of Chinese pirates preyed upon the strait, nominally under the control of the Java-based kingdom
2. In 1407, the forces of the Ming dynasty crushed the Chinese pirates. The Muslim ruler of Malacca took advantage
of this to exert his domination over the strait and to make Malacca into a major port and a center of trade.
IV. Social and Cultural Change
A. Architecture, Learning, and Religion
1. Commercial contacts and the spread of Islam led to a variety of social and cultural changes in which local
cultures incorporated and changed ideas, customs and architectural styles from other civilizations. African and
Indian mosques are good examples of the synthesis of Middle Eastern and local architectural styles; in Ethiopia,
a native tradition of rock carving led to the construction of eleven churches carved from solid rock.
2. In the field of education, the spread of Islam brought literacy to African peoples who first learned Arabic and then
used the Arabic script to write their own languages. In India literacy was already established, but the spread of
Islam brought the development of a new Persian-influenced language (Urdu) and the papermaking technology.
3. As it spread to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, Islam also brought with it the study of Islamic law and
administration and Greek science, mathematics, and medicine. Timbuktu, Delhi and Malacca were two new
centers of Islamic learning.
4. Islam spread peacefully; forced conversions were rare. Muslim domination of trade contributed to the spread of
Islam as merchants attracted by the common moral code and laws of Islam converted and as Muslim
merchants in foreign lands established households and converted their local wives and servants. The Islamic
destruction of the last center of Buddhism in India contributed to the spread of Islam in that country.
5. Islam brought social and cultural changes to the communities that converted, but Islam itself was changed,
developing differently in African, Indian, and Indonesian societies.
B. Social and Gender Distinctions
1. The gap between elites and the common people widened in tropical societies as the wealthy urban elites
prospered from the increased Indian Ocean trade.
2. Slavery increased in both Africa and in India. An estimated 2.5 million African slaves were exported across the
Sahara and the Red Sea between 1200 and 1500, while more were shipped from the cities of the Swahili coast.
3. Most slaves were trained in specific skills; in some cases, hereditary military slaves could become rich and
powerful. Other slaves worked at hard menial jobs like copper mining, while others, particularly women, were
employed as household servants and entertainers. The large number of slaves meant that the price of slaves
was quite low.
4. While there is not much information on possible changes in the status of women in the tropics, some scholars
speculate that restrictions on women were eased somewhat in Hindu societies. Nonetheless, early arranged
marriage was the rule for Indian women, and they were expected to obey strict rules of fidelity and chastity.
5. Women’s status was generally determined by the status of their male masters. However, women did practice
certain skills other than child rearing. These included cooking, brewing, farm work, and spinning.
6. It is difficult to tell what effect the spread of Islam might have had on women. It is clear that in some places, such
as Mali, Muslims did not adopt the Arab practice of veiling and secluding women.