APWH - MASTERY TEST - Ch. 8 China & the World ____1.Those who participated in the Chinese tribute system gained a.a permanent garrison of Chinese troops. b.a gift of gunpowder and cannons. c.the opportunity to trade in China. d.lower tax rates.
____2.In Song dynasty China, masculine identity came to be defined in terms of a.archery, horseback riding, and athleticism. b.military valor and business acumen. c.calligraphy, scholarship, painting, and poetry. d.weakness, reticence, sacrifice, and delicacy.
____3.Which of the following is a reason that the Tang and Song dynasties are regarded as a “golden age” in China? a.The peaceful transfer of power from the Tang to the Song b.The development of democratic political institutions c.The setting of standards of excellence in art and literature d.The nearly universal adoption of Buddhism by the population
____4.How was the tribute system an expression of the Chinese view of themselves and their relationship to the world? a.The tribute system required non-Chinese to acknowledge Chinese superiority and their own subordinate place in a Chinese-centered world order. b.The tribute system was based on the assumptions that unity was a natural condition and that China was destined to rule the entire world. c.The tribute system maintained the racial purity of the Chinese people by prohibiting intermarriage between Chinese and non-Chinese peoples. d.The tribute system celebrated the multicultural diversity of the Chinese people and encouraged cultural borrowing.
____5.Which describes conditions in China in the three centuries following the collapse of the Han dynasty around 220 C.E.? a.Northern nomads conquered some portions of China. b.Chinese began migrating northward toward Mongolia. c.China became more of a pastoral society. d.Buddhism’s influence on Chinese culture declined.
____6.Which of the following shows the effect of the Indian Ocean trade on China? a.The transfer of Vietnam from Chinese control to the Southeast Asian sphere of influence b.The transformation of southern China from a subsistence economy to an export-oriented economy c.The replacement of the tribute system with a trade system based on free and equal access d.The emergence of Hong Kong as an international hub for all ocean-based trade routes
____7.Which religion provided an element of cultural commonality for the East Asian region? a.Buddhismc.Islam b.Daoismd.Christianity
____8.Which of the following was a factor in the growth of Buddhism in China after 300 C.E.? a.Disorder increased following the collapse of the Han dynasty, which discredited Confucianism. b.The celibacy of Buddhist monks and their withdrawal from society correlated well with Confucian c.Buddhist monks from Korea undertook sustained missionary endeavors. d.Rival Shinto priests withdrew to Japan following persecution by the Tang dynasty.
____9.How did the changed environment in China in the ninth century affect Buddhism? a.State support of Buddhism made Buddhism the official religion of China. b.Buddhist monasteries came under state control as a xenophobic reaction set in. c.People flocked to Buddhism as a way to deal with the social chaos. d.Buddhism was wiped out as a result of state-sponsored policies of persecution.
____10.The invention of printing in China was linked with which religion? a.Christianityc.Buddhism b.Daoismd.Islam
____11.China’s most enduring and intense interaction with outsiders was with a.the gathering and hunting societies of Southeast Asia. b.the nomadic pastoral peoples of the northern steppes. c.the various empires that ruled India. d.Muslim traders in the Indian Ocean.
____12.The emergence of the samurai reflected Japan’s a.imperial ambitions to conquer China.c.ancient emperor system. b.embrace of Confucianism.d.decentralized political structure.
____13.The emergence of which practice during the Song dynasty suggests that Chinese women’s lives were more restricted than they had been in the Tang dynasty? a.Remarriage of widowsc.Foot binding b.Tribute systemd.Bushido
____14.In what respect was Japan’s borrowing of Chinese culture different from the experiences of Korea and Vietnam? a.Japanese people viewed their own country less as a separate nation than as an extension of a universal civilization centered in China. b.In Japan, only the lower classes and women embraced Chinese culture, while elite men resisted Chinese influence in all arenas. c.Japan adopted many elements of Chinese culture but completely rejected the fundamental principles of Confucianism. d.Japan’s borrowing was wholly voluntary rather than occurring under conditions of direct military threat or outright occupation.
____15.Which of the following is an example of how Chinese inventions stimulated innovations in distant lands? a.The Chinese formula for gunpowder triggered the development of cannons in Europe. b.The Chinese invention of movable type was the inspiration for the creation of the world’s first copy machine in the Islamic world. c.The Chinese technique for producing salt by solar evaporation made possible the invention of windmills in Persia. d.The Chinese invention of the magnetic compass spurred the Scientific Revolution in Europe.
____16.Which of the following was a political contribution of the Tang and Song dynasties? a.The creation of an aristocracy that transformed the government from a monarchy to an oligarchy b.The introduction of administrative procedures that made the bureaucracy obsolete c.The democratization of the political system with the establishment of the Censorate d.The construction of a state structure that lasted until the twentieth century
____17.What did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam develop that reflected their unique culture? a.Their own court rituals c.Their own tribute systems b.Their own writing systemsd.Their own law codes
____18.Which of the following contributed to China’s economic prosperity during the Tang and Song dynasties? a.The suppression of internal trade in order to increase long-distance trade b.The import of large numbers of slaves to work in agriculture and industry c.The large-scale immigration of indentured servants from Pacific Oceania d.A complex network of internal waterways that provided cheap transportation
____19.Chinese interaction with the northern nomads during the Tang dynasty resulted in the a.conversion of large numbers of the northern nomads to Daoism. b.evolution of a mixed Chinese/Turkic culture in northern China. c.launching of maritime expeditions in the Indian Ocean. d.replacement of the tribute system with a system of free trade.
____20.Which of the following describes Korea’s relationship with China? a.Korea was incorporated into the Chinese empire for over a thousand years. b.Korean male elites developed their own alphabet as a way to resist Chinese cultural influence. c.Korea’s capital city of Kumsong was modeled directly on the Chinese capital of Chang’an. d.Korea was able to avoid participating in China’s tribute system.
____21.What does Map 8.5 in the textbook reveal about how Buddhism spread? a.Buddhism entered Japan directly from India. b.Buddhism spread to Europe via the Silk Road. c.Buddhism spread from north to south. d.Buddhism entered Korea via China.
____22.In their relations with China, the countries of Korea and Japan both a.acknowledged the Chinese emperor as their ruler. b.rejected every aspect of Chinese civilization. c.declined to participate in the Chinese tribute system. d.sent people to China to study Chinese thought and culture.
____23.Which of the following contributed to the doubling of the Chinese population during the Tang and Song dynasties? a.The conquest of Japan b.The adoption of a fast-ripening strain of rice from Vietnam c.The end of warfare with pastoral peoples d.The massive importation of food crops from Central Asia
____24.Which of the following was a technological innovation that spread from China to the rest of Eurasia? a.The processing of sugarc.Cannons b.Printingd.The processing of cotton
____25.What do the Xiongnu, the Uighurs, the Khitan, and the Jurchen have in common? a.All four paid tribute to China in return for military protection. b.All four were ultimately conquered by China. c.All four established states in the southern portions of the Chinese empire. d.All four required China to send them valuable goods in return for not attacking China.
____26.Which of the following statements describes Korea’s relationship with China in the premodern period? a.Korean elites rejected Chinese culture, but peasants adopted it wholesale. b.Korea adopted elements of Chinese culture while keeping a separate culture and separate political existence. c.Korea was a subject state ruled directly by China for most of its history. d.Korean rulers never participated in the Chinese tribute system in an effort to assert their independence
____27.Which of the following explains why women’s lives were more restricted in the Song dynasty than in the Tang dynasty? a.The introduction of Daoism b.The decline of Buddhism c.The revival of Confucianism
____28.Which of the following statements about the Chinese tribute system is true? a.The tribute system operated at the end of wars of conquest and was designed to humiliate the conquered b.China’s neighbors in the premodern period often refused to submit to the rituals of the tribute system because they resented China’s assumption of superiority. c.The tribute system was an exploitative one-way street, with foreign states paying tribute to China but the Chinese government offering nothing in return. d.The Chinese government often gave other states gifts that were in fact worth more than the tribute that those states paid to China.
____29.Chinese references to “Western barbarians” in the Tang dynasty included which group of people? a.Koreansc.Portuguese b.Indiansd.Vietnamese
____30.Which of the following is an example of how Indian Buddhism was modified after its introduction into China? a.The patriarchal assumptions of Indian Buddhism were replaced by a message of equality between husbands and wives. b.The veneration of relics in Indian Buddhism was replaced by the worship of ancestral spirits and ghosts. c.The Buddhist notion of “morality” was translated with the Confucian term for “filial submission and obedience.” d.The social orientation of Indian Buddhism was replaced with an emphasis on individual salvation and enlightenment.
____31.The tenth-century painting entitled The Night Revels of Han Xizai in Source 8.4, “An Elite Night Party,” portrays women a.playing musical instruments c.secluded in the inner quarters. b.engaged in scholarly pursuits.d.contemplating the natural world.
____32.In the Tang dynasty painting in Source 8.2, “At Table with the Empress,” , how is the empress distinguished from the other women? a.The empress is the only one seated. b.The empress is the only one wearing red. c.The empress is seated at the head of the table. d.The empress wears a distinctive headdress.
____33.In the painting in Source 8.1, “A Banquet with the Emperor,” , who are the other people seated at the table? a.Officialsc.Nomads b.Warriorsd.Musicians
____34.The activities depicted in which painting ran counter to Confucian values? a.A Banquet with the Emperorc.A Literary Gathering b.At Table with the Empressd.The Night Revels of Han Xizai
____35.The tenth-century painting in Source 8.3, “A Literary Gathering,” shows a.elite women engaged in a heated political discussion. b.scholars and officials engaged in solitary contemplation. c.men and women engaged in a poetry competition. d.commoners copying the lifestyles of the literary elite.
____36.The “way of the warrior,” referring to the military virtues of the Japanese samurai, including bravery, loyalty, and an emphasis on death over surrender. ____37.Chinese practice begun in the Tang dynasty; an emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of female beauty.
____38.A variation of Chinese writing developed in Vietnam that became the basis for “southern script.”
____39.Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required payment—produce of value from their countries—to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable).
____40.Buddhism was China’s only large-scale cultural borrowing before the twentieth century; Buddhism entered China from India in the first and second centuries C.E. but only became popular in 300–800 C.E. through a series of cultural accommodations. At first supported by the state, Buddhism suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society.
____41.Major nomadic confederacy that was established ca. 200 B.C.E. and eventually reached from Manchuria to Central Asia.
____42.Sui emperor (r. 581–604) who particularly patronized Buddhism.
____43.The first ruling dynasty to bring a measure of political unity to the Korean peninsula (688–900).
____44.A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China (907–1125); a nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China (1115–1234).
____45.Rule from 960 to 1279 in China; built a state structure that endured for a thousand years. China became “the richest, most skilled, and most populous country on earth” during this period.
____46.Rule in China from 618 to 907; noted for its openness to foreign cultural influences.
____47.A phonetic alphabet developed in Korea in the fifteenth century.
____48.Japan’s most illustrious female poet (born ca. 975) who was particularly gifted in writing the tanka form of poetry. She became a scandalous figure in the imperial court after her affairs with Prince Tametaka and his brother, Prince Atsumichi.
____49.Japanese statesman (572–622) who launched the drive to make Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on China; he is best known for the Seventeen Article Constitution, which lays out the principles of this reform.
____50.A substance made of saltpeter, charcoal, and sulfur invented by the Chinese in the ninth century that ultimately revolutionized military operations worldwide. Ironically, it was originally created by Daoist alchemists who were searching for an elixir of immortality.